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  • Itzhak Oren

As the World Burns, Israel Must Develop "Sustainability Diplomacy"

Even without clear government direction and commitment to the topic, the Israeli diplomat can and should serve as a “climate ambassador” and agent for change in the field of environment and sustainability. Adopting “sustainability diplomacy” as part of his or her daily activities, and bringing advanced Israeli technology in these fields to countries and regions in need, will increase Israel’s contribution to the fight against global warming and enhance its foreign relations and global image

Climate change is one of the most significant challenges humanity faces today. This is a tangible and real crisis, which we are experiencing with increasing frequency through extreme weather events all over the world. Heat waves, floods, and droughts become worse and more frequent every year. Climate scientists show that these phenomena are linked to increasing global temperatures and the melting of the world’s ice caps. If we continue to emit large amounts of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, the global warming trajectory will cause an increase in the average global temperature by four to six degrees by the end of this century. This is predicted to unleash devastating droughts and heat waves in some parts of the world as well as the flooding of many coastal cities, and will turn hundreds of millions of people into refugees. [1]

But besides threats, the climate crisis also presents opportunities for positive change. Effective diplomacy is essential for seizing these opportunities, which have the potential to translate into significant diplomatic capital. This is because climate change does not stop at national borders and thus requires global solutions. Collaboration between countries, corporations, and civil society organizations is one of the primary ways that states can help find and implement solutions to a world-wide problem of this type, and which produces diplomatic gains at the same time.

The State of Israel prides itself, and rightly so, as a unique center of technological innovation in a wide range of fields. At face value, Israel has enormous potential to lead the world in finding and implementing renewable energy solutions and dealing with environmental crises. In today’s world, its advances in agriculture, wastewater purification, and water reclamation technologies can be turned into formidable diplomatic tools, which its Foreign Service can and should utilize to capitalize on diplomatic gains and as economic levers in foreign trade.

In an ideal world, Israel would become a leading global player in the battle against climate change. Its government would present a clear energy policy and a demonstrate its commitment to the subject - signaling to the rest of the world that the crisis sits high on its priority list. Unfortunately, Israel does not find it important enough, nor devote sufficient resources, to take a substantial role in this struggle, let alone lead it. And because Israel does not lead by example, today its weight around the table of global climate policy is negligible.

Israeli determination to prepare for the climate crisis, which includes an uncompromising fulfillment of the goals outlined in the 2015 Paris Agreement, as well as regulatory and educational preparation, would have enabled the formulation of an effective and impressive body of “sustainability diplomacy”. This term refers to a diplomatic platform which markets and capitalizes on the achievements of Israeli technology in sustainability related research and development and translates them to economic, public image, and political advantages. Formulating a policy of sustainable diplomacy is possible only through a concentrated effort by the government to set a clear policy, along with strenuous work and personal leadership by diplomatic representatives in the countries they serve in. By refraining from doing so, Israel is losing twice – first, by passively and sometimes actively helping the deterioration of Israel’s environment, and second by refraining from presenting an impressive platform in the diplomatic realm.


A single diplomat is capable of overcoming political barriers and bridging Israel's business interests and those of his country of service


Despite the year-long impasse in the Israeli political system, which does not bode well for efforts to strengthen the weak government commitment on climate change, the Israeli diplomat's power lies in developing his role as a "climate ambassador" and a real agent of change in the field of ecology and sustainability. A single diplomat working within the framework of "low policy" measures – a term which I will elaborate upon later - is able to go out to the field, overcome political barriers, and bridge Israel's business interests and those of his country of service. He or she must harness Israeli technological capabilities and funnel them for the sake of urgent needs of the target country, while building an enabling space for a wide range of activities, technical-business co-operation, and educated utilization of public diplomacy.

As he or she embraces "sustainability diplomacy" as a key issue in his or her ongoing activities, the diplomat's importance and contribution to the country of service and Israel's relations with it will increase. But to achieve this goal, the Israeli foreign service must provide its diplomats with basic tools, which I will elaborate upon in this article. The cost of imparting these tools is negligible compared to the potential benefit they can yield. But first, a few words should be devoted to the global effort on the climate crisis and on the legal-political environment within which Israeli diplomats must operate.

The world prepares for the climate crisis

Coordinated international action on climate, environment and sustainability began in an organized institutional framework in 1972, at a United Nations conference entitled "The Human Environment." This was the first time that every person's right to a healthy living environment was formally recognized and declared, and first steps were taken to ensure it. Following the conference, in 1973 the UN established the United Nations Environment Program, and a decade later the World Commission on Environment and Development. The latter published in 1987 the "Brundtland Report," which recognized human responsibility for the poor environmental condition of the planet. [2]

In 1992, Rio de Janeiro hosted the "Earth Conference" - the United Nations World Summit for Environment and Development, attended by over 170 countries. The summit ended with the “Rio Declaration,” which laid the groundwork for resolutions by the conference and local and international programs to address environmental issues. The term "Sustainable Development" was also coined in Rio as a principle and a response to the environmental crisis. [3]

Citizens of Haiti observe the damage caused by Hurrican Matthew, 2016 | UN Photo/Logan Abassi (United Nations Photo on Flickr, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0)

In 2002, at the next Earth Conference, held in Johannesburg, the “Earth Charter” was formulated to explicitly and extensively deal with the social and political aspects of the Earth's ecological deterioration, directly linking the environment to human rights, justice, peace, and personal and national security. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference saw a new global climate treaty, known as the "Paris Agreement,” published. It aims to lead the world’s transition into a low-carbon economy and part with dependency on fossil fuel. The historic agreement states that all 195 member states, except the poorest, will set goals for reducing long-term greenhouse gas emissions and partake in a joint effort to combat the severe consequences of climate change and global warming.

Donald J. Trump's election to President of the United States in 2017, and his announcement of his intention to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, has caused turmoil in the international political system on many issues, including the fight against climate change. As a direct continuation of this trend, the December 2019 climate conference in Madrid failed to reach understandings and further agreements.

Israel, the environment, and the world

Over the years, Israel has signed a variety of multilateral agreements (treaties) and bilateral agreements on environmental and climate issues. It takes an active part in international programs and forums on a variety of topics, such as protecting the marine and coastal environments, environmental policy, sustainable consumption and production, water resources conservation, biodiversity, waste management, climate change, combating desertification and more. [4] Accordingly, Israel agreed to align its internal legislation with the principles arising from its international environmental commitments.

But despite extensive activity in the international arena, Israel's commitment to environmental protection and climate change preparedness remains far from global standards. Ahead of the Johannesburg Summit in 2002, each of the participating countries was asked to prepare a national report on the implementation of the “Agenda 21” program - outlining actions required at the global level. There was no real change in the Israeli government's approach to development and the environment, and the report was lacking accordingly in several areas. [5]

At the same time, ahead of the conference, a "Coalition for Sustainability" uniting 30 environmental and social organizations, was established in Israel with the aim of independently assessing Israel's progress in sustainable development since the Rio Conference. The collaboration between the organizations yielded the "Shadow Report" to the official government report, which was submitted at the Earth Summit alongside reports from 22 other delegations seeking to reveal the truth behind their governments’ activities. In this report, the Israeli organizations strongly criticized their government's conduct, its inefficiency and its failure to comply with its previous commitments. The report demonstrated that in the decade under review, Israel had slid back in almost all accepted criteria: it failed to comply with existing environment standards, doubled its greenhouse gas emissions, saw air pollution in cities rise, failed in water management, and completely ignored environmentally-minded planning. [6]


While Israel is not a major contributor to the global climate crisis, it has not implemented the commitments it has undertaken


Following Paris 2015, the Israeli government declared that the new Agreement introduces significant opportunities to use developing and distributing technologies to solve the world's climate problems. The Minister of Environmental Protection at the time, Avi Gabbay, stated in his speech at the conference that Israel is committed to the process and intends to lend its knowledge and expertise to the global effort. [7]

As part of its stated commitment, the Israeli government set goals for reducing pollutant emissions – on reducing coal use, significantly increasing renewable energy and energy efficiency, and reducing pollution generated by transportation – which it also failed to meet. While several government decisions were announced, and sincere efforts are being made by the relevant officials, the government's support is partial at best, while its Ministry of Environmental Protection is understaffed, politically weak, and usually powerless. [8]

In 2019, an inter-ministerial team led by Ambassador Ya’akov Hadas, then Israeli special envoy for sustainability and climate change, drafted a special report on the implementation of sustainable development indices in Israel. His main message was: "Harnessing Israeli innovation so as not to leave anyone behind." [9] In Resolution No. 4631 of July 14, 2019, the Israeli government approved an initiative led by the Prime Minister, the Foreign Minister, and the Minister of the Environmental Protection, entitled "Integrating UN Development Goals for Improving Governance and Strategic Planning Processes in the Government". [10]

To summarize, due to its small size, Israel is not a major contributor to the global climate crisis. However, it also does not excel in implementing the agreements and commitments to which it has pledged, and is far from setting a positive example on the international arena. [11]

The role of Israeli diplomacy

How, then, can Israel join in the international battle against climate change - a move that will reward Israel at the local and global levels both economically and diplomatically - even in the absence of true government commitment? For Israeli diplomats to operate under these conditions, they must first identify areas of activity that enable rapid initiative and response at the local level. For that matter, I suggest distinguishing between "high politics" and "low politics" – a widely-accepted differentiation in the field of political science and international relations.

"High politics" cover all issues that are deemed vital to the survival of the country, first and foremost issues of national security and international relations. By contrast, "low politics" cover all areas that are perceived as non-essential to the survival of the state, such as the welfare of the people and issues related to social or human security. [12] The term "high politics" was used primarily during the Cold War amidst the reduction of the discussion on state power, and the centrality of diplomatic relations, in light of the threat of the use of nuclear weapons. [13]

Despite issuing statements of support and commitment to fighting climate change, many governments worldwide view environmental issues as “low politics.” [14] Counterintuitively, this could actually be an advantage for diplomacy, as the supposedly politically-neutral and global nature of environmental issues can serve as a bridge between rivals, or even between countries that do not maintain diplomatic ties. One should bear in mind that the tendency of internal politics to shape foreign policy, [15] encompassed in the adage that "all politics is internal," [16] results in a constant seepage between matters of low and high politics.

An Israeli farmer trains workers from Ghana, 1965. Israel is considered a leading power in agri-tech | Photo: Fritz Cohen, GPO

I therefore propose to similarly distinguish between "High Policy" and "Low Policy" objectives in the fields of climate change activities. "High Policy" is determined by the senior political and professional echelons, has long-term goals, is often hard to realize, and is often subject to controversy due to conflicting international interests. By contrast, "Low Policy" goals are practical and immediate and can bring about a significant change if implemented effectively and transparently. Since these are goals are for the benefit of the people, the exposure they get often results in widespread public support – whose political weight is significant both internally and externally.

It is precisely in this area of ​​"Low Policy" that the potential of Israel’s technological progress lies. In fact, it is a platform that can advance the status of the Israeli diplomat as a central and esteemed player in the bilateral relations between Israel and his or her country of service.

From Statements to Practice

The practical course of action in the field of "sustainability diplomacy" follows the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) set by the UN in 2015: 17 parameters for examining the level of development of each country by 2030. These serve as guidelines in policy making, with each parameter setting detailed goals and metrics to monitor the progress of each country relative to itself and to the world. [17]

In the absence of "High Policy" - but with the blessing of the government and his or her superiors in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and with the freedom of action to operate in the country of service - the Israeli diplomat can try to promote "sustainability diplomacy” on his or her own initiative. As technological advancement is Israel's main platform for taking part in, and even leading, the fight against climate change and the realization of UN goals, such actions can make the diplomat a true agent of change. In the long run, the diplomat may be able to change the reality of the country he or she serves in, the state of the environment and local public opinion, and, eventually, even "High Policy". It is important to note that, traditionally, the Israeli MFA backs ambassadors who recommends following the agenda of their country of service, taking advantage of the relative advantages of the State of Israel.

UN Sustainable Development Goals


To become a player in the fight against climate change, the MFA must move from a responsive attitude to a systematic and ongoing proactive one


Of the many areas of technology that are relevant to meeting the UN's goals, and which Israel rightly prides itself in, two are particularly notable.

The first is agriculture. Since its establishment, Israeli agriculture has produced state-of-the-art achievements thanks to the ingenuity and determination of the Israeli farmer, groundbreaking research, effective agricultural training and massive government support. These include the development of groundbreaking irrigation techniques which lead to significant water saving, peak yield in many types of crops, acclimation and adaptation of new crops, and the development of diverse agricultural exports.

The second field is wastewater treatment: Wastewater treatment produces two products: the first, a sludge that is directed to a compost site and used to fertilize agricultural land; the second is a high-energy gas, stored in a special container and used as fuel for producing electricity. The result: purified wastewater is used to irrigate fields, groves, and agricultural crops. Thanks to this activity, we all enjoy high-yield fields and green parks.

An example of this kind of Israeli “sustainability diplomacy” activity comes from Papua New Guinea. In 2016, the small island state was hit by the "El Niño" phenomenon, a storm of hot winds which leads to diminished rainfall in tropical countries. As a result, about two million local citizens suffered from water shortages and crop destruction.

In the face of a severe humanitarian crisis, the Israeli MFA responded to a personal request by Papua New Guinea’s Prime Minister, Peter O'Neill, for an innovative portable water desalination system made in Israel. The "Gal Mobile" system generates drinking water for populations in areas with poor access to water, and makes it easier to cope with droughts. On May 29, 2016, Ambassador Michael Ronen, Director of the Southeast Asia Department of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, made a special trip from Jerusalem to make this donation. In his remarks, the New Guinian secretary of state expressed his appreciation to the State of Israel for this "special gift", that would ensure thousands of people in his country access to safe drinking water. [18]

This is a case in point demonstrating that the diplomat's role today is multi-layered. The potential dividends are numerous – to the country's political status, image and economy, and no less significant – for the welfare and advancement of his or her country of service, partnership in the international community's goals, and the fight against climate change. Yet to become a truly influential player, the MFA must shift from a reactive to a proactive approach in the field of climate change.

Gal-Mobile's water purification system in Papua-New Guinea | Source: Youtube

Action recommendations

Faced with the acute nature of the climate crisis and the collapse of environmental infrastructure, the internal barriers facing the global community do not bear a promise of effective joint action. Furthermore, bearing in mind Israel's recent declarations of its willingness to assume a leading role in disseminating advanced technologies to tackle the climate crisis, the Israeli diplomatic service can and should step up to the plate – and without delay.

To that effect, it is suggested to act in the following manner:

Resolution: In the absence of a clear governmental resolution, the MFA senior staff must determine that global warming is a matter of top priority for the diplomatic service and the work of every official engaged in diplomatic-political activities and public diplomacy. Subsequently, the Ministry should outline a detailed action plan that includes the necessary means, methods, and measures. These can be based on examples of existing diplomatic activity, such as that practiced by Canada (see below).

The guideline for these activities could be derived from speeches by then Minister of Environmental Protection Avi Gabbay in Paris in 2016, Foreign Minister Israel Katz in Bahrain in 2019, and the like. Their message to the world has been the same: Israel will harness its technological progress to lead the international effort to fight climate change. Of course, the decision in question requires an economic analysis that presents the technology-based economic opportunities that underpin the move.


Israeli diplomats must be trained in all aspects of the climate crisis and environmental and sustainability issues, the dangers they pose, how to counter them, and how Israel can contribute technologically to these efforts


Training: After outlining the Ministry’s policy, Israeli diplomats must be trained in all aspects of the climate crisis and environmental and sustainability issues, the dangers they pose, how to counter them, and how Israel can contribute technologically to these efforts. Apart from the training the experienced training division in the Ministry can provide, additional learning can also be done in collaboration with other government ministries, including the Ministry of Environmental Protection and the Ministry of Energy, as well as a training session in "climate departments” in foreign ministries all over the world. These collaborations can yield many dividends, including expanding the knowledge base and experience, and laying the foundations for continued international diplomatic cooperation.

Cross-sector cooperation: The Israeli’s government's resolution stipulates the establishment of a climate change preparation authority, which includes representatives of 32(!) government ministries and agencies. However, for effective diplomatic work, it will be better to establish an integrated working group, led by the Innovation Authority, which will serve as a central body with knowledge of new technological breakthroughs, to be accompanied by senior representatives of the tech-business industry. This lean and efficient working group will provide weekly guidance to MFA delegations on the promotion, marketing, and implementation of Israeli technologies relating to the broad spectrum of environment, sustainability, and climate change issues.

Establishment of a Public Diplomacy Working Group: This area was and still is one of the Foreign Ministry's main assets, and – much to everyone’s relief – has not been appropriated or delegated to another government office or agency, as many of the MFA’s responsibilities have in recent years. Albeit, issues relating to the environment and the role of technological leadership that Israel will take on constitute a first-class platform for branding and positioning of the State of Israel in the international arena.

To this end, the Public Diplomacy Working Group must devote a systematic and sustained effort to create quality content, produce materials, and remain present on communication channels and social networks. A monthly evaluation system should be considered to reward outstanding heads of missions.

Mission Statement: Each head of mission departing Israel must have a prepared mission statement that defines his or her role as a "climate diplomat" as high a priority as possible. This assignment includes the promotion and marketing of Israeli technology products in specific areas, most notably advanced agriculture, waste treatment, and disposal facilities. In addition, they will engage in political activities with decision-makers and civil society organizations, public diplomacy, appearances in front of audiences and the media, and also participate in environment-related field activities.

Appointment of an Ambassador for Climate Crisis: To demonstrate a true commitment to addressing the climate change crisis, Israel can learn from other Western countries. One of them is Canada, which in June 2018 appointed an ambassador for climate issues – in recognition of the leadership role it wishes to assume, and as a signal to the world about it. Ambassador Patricia Fuller's duties include coordination of her country’s environment-related activities with its partners, and activities to help advance an agenda of growth and fighting climate change.

Fuller’s mandate is to advise countries, institutions and international bodies on priorities in climate change policy, and to lead engagement with partner countries. In addition, she represents Canada in international joint ventures and maintains relations with key opinion leaders and stakeholders in Canada and the rest of the world. [19]

Compared to Fuller’s broad mandate, her Israeli counterpart, who is designated as "a special emissary for climate change sustainability and change", has been assigned a much more limited task - to coordinate an interagency team, which published its first report on Israel's compliance with UN development indices (SDG) in 2019. Upgrading the position and granting it greater powers and status will demonstrate to the world that Israel is committed to the issue.

Sustainability diplomacy at the local level: In the absence of a robust government environment policy, it is the Israeli diplomats who hold the key to creating positive momentum in their country’s diplomatic activity. They must initiate more business relationships, events, and ventures in areas of ​​high visibility in their countries of service.

An example of realizing Canada's "sustainability diplomacy" approach can be seen in the activities of its ambassador to Islamabad, HE Wendy Gilmour. The Ambassador perceives her role as an "environment ambassador" in Pakistan, a country that contributes little to the climate crisis but has been condemned to suffer disproportionately from it now, and even more so in the near future. [20] Ambassador Gilmour visits remote areas, lectures, participates in public cleanup operations, and ensures Canadian assistance funds allocated to solving the climate crisis are realized.

Setting an example: Staff members of the High Commission of Canada in Pakistan help locals clean Islamabad's streets, in 2019 | Photo: High Commission's Facebook page

Another example of a diplomat who considers the environment a key issue in his mission is that of Thomas Hart Armbruster, US Ambassador to the Marshall Islands (2012-2016), who was awarded the State Department Award and the country’s President's Award. [21] Ambassador Armbruster was close to the local Foreign Minister, the late Tony deBrum, who went on a crusade against the proliferation of nuclear weapons and was one of the leaders of the Paris Conference. Armbruster stood by deBrum and even helped him find an indigenous Marshall Islands spokeswoman, who appealed to the delegates of the Paris Conference in a plead to save the environment, and in doing so captured their hearts.

Israeli diplomats are also active in these areas. Apart from the aforementioned example of Papua New Guinea, in the field of water purification, local Israeli delegates are active in China, India, South Africa, Kazakhstan, and other countries. For example, in 2017, the Israeli Ambassador to Ghana, HE Ami Mahel, helped connects the Israel-based “Ayala River Water Purification Company” with the local director general of the Ghanaian Environment Ministry, in an effort to resolve an acute Ghanaian problem (and one from which many countries in Africa are suffering). After the Mozambican cyclone disaster in March 2019, Israeli Ambassador HE Oren Rosenblatt, alongside conventional emergency aid, also provided that government with a water purification system. Last June, the Israeli ambassador to New Zealand and his team left the embassy, together with the Wellington Museum staff, to clean the capital city's promenade.

But the key to change, which is also possible in the absence of government funding and which this article has discussed at length, is focused and systematic proactive actions to connect advanced Israeli technology companies in two key areas: waste and wastewater treatment, and advanced agriculture. These include waste and wastewater treatment, such as contaminated soil rehabilitation, contaminated groundwater treatment methods, fuels and hazardous materials, contaminated soil in petroleum products, the design and construction of industrial wastewater treatment systems, gray water recycling, development, design, production, and construction of desalination plants, sludge treatment in wastewater treatment plants, and advanced agriculture, which includes the effective utilization of low-water sources, increasing yield, and optimization of production sources.

Regional environmental dialogue: Another issue that carries valuable diplomatic dividends, and which should be re-established as soon as possible, is the regional dialogue on environment and climate. Dealing with this matter, as Foreign Minister Israel Katz testified after his visit to Abu Dhabi in 2019, builds bridges between politicians, experts, countries and regions. [22] These must overcome their rivalries, suspicions, and hostility in the interest of the cause - thus creating a common discourse and platform for dialogue. Such cooperation may lead to the assimilation of common norms and the creation of regional identity and common regional interests. Environmental issues are not as deeply contested as the other political issues in our region and may be a first step toward a more relaxed dialogue, even on difficult and complex issues.


[1] According to the scientific journal Nature Communications, continued sea level rise is expected to endanger the home of 300 million people – more than three times the previous estimate. Without a significant reduction in carbon emissions, plus reinforcement and coastal stabilization, all major coastal cities will be in danger of flooding at least once a year by 2050, and some will be wiped off the map altogether. See: Omer Kabir, Calcalist, 31.10.2019. (Hebrew)

[2] The report declares a common commitment for all its participants to change. It highlights, on the one hand, environmental damage as a cause of inter-state conflicts, and on the other, the devastating consequences for the environment of wars and their use of conventional weapons and weapons of mass destruction.

[3] The term "sustainability development" has become a common and useful adage, but alongside it is the widespread criticism of its alleged vagueness. Its opponents argue that this ambiguity is but a smoke screen designed to disguise continued accelerated development, while blurring the link between development and economic growth and ecological and social destruction. On the other hand, it is argued that the concept of sustainability development goes against a capitalist economic premise, which holds no limit to growth and lays new foundations for worldviews, behavior, and discussion of quality of life, of economics, of distributive justice, for generations to come. The official adoption of the concept by world governments and its entry into the discourse creates at least some commitment on the part of countries to take into account policy development and make necessary changes.

[4] Israel has signed, ratified and joined 20 environmental-related treaties. For the full list, see:

[5] Sarah Osatsky Lazar and Shachar Sadeh, Environment and Peace: Theory, Politics, Activism and Between, Jerusalem: Van Leer Institute, March 2000. (Hebrew)

[6] Dalia Tal, "Johannesburg Conference: Environment, Social Justice and Minorities," Globes, 18.08.2002 (link). (Hebrew)

[7] (Hebrew)

[8] See: Zafrir Rinat, "Offenders throw garbage and pollutants, Ministry of Environmental Protection does not enforce the law," Ha'aretz, 15 May 2019 (Hebrew). The articles states that "the responsibility [...] is also of the Ministry of Finance and the Prime Minister. They probably prefer a weak and limited environmental protection ministry, which will not interfere too much with the activities of industrial and construction enterprises." See also: Dov Hanin, "Eco-Innovation: A Shortcoming for the Start-Up Nation," The Arena, Issue 3, 7.1.2019. Hanin, a former Member of Knesset, claims that "the government, which has set very modest targets for progress towards renewable energy and unfortunately, even it does not meet. The director of the Ministry of the Environment himself recently called the government program a ‘sad joke and folly.’" See:

[9] Ministry of the Environment (link). (Hebrew)

[10] Ibid.

[11] Hanin, "Eco-Innovation."

[12] See:

Robert Keohane and Joseph S. Nye, Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition, Boston: Little, Brown, 1977.

[13] See:

George P. Shultz, William J. Perry, Henry A. Kissinger and Sam Nunn, “A World Free of Nuclear Weapons,” The Wall Street Journal, January 4, 2007 (link).

[14] See:

Saleem H. Ali, "Conservation and Conflict Resolution: Crossing the Policy Frontier," Environmental Change and Security Project (ECSP), Washington D.C.: The Wilson Center, Issue no.11, 2005 (link)

[15] See:

Thomas A. Schwartz, Henry Kissinger: Realism, "Domestic Politics, and the Struggle Against Exceptionalism in American Foreign Policy," Diplomacy and Statecraft 22 (1), March 2011; Henry A. Kissinger, "Domestic Structure and Foreign Policy," Daedalus Vol. 95, no. 2, Conditions of World Order (Spring, 1966), pp. 503-529.

[16] See:

Charles P. Pierce, "Tip O'Neill's Idea That All Politics Is Local Is How Government Dies," Esquire, July 17, 2015 (link).

[18] See announcement on the Foreign Ministry website (link). (Hebrew)

[20] Mahem Abedi, “Canada positioned itself as a world leader on climate change”, Global News, September 26, 2019 (link).

[21] Aaron Mak, “An Interview with Ambassador Thomas Hart Armbruster, U.S. Ambassador to the Marshall Islands,” The Politic, August 15, 2013 (link)

[22] Statement by the Secretary of State at the conclusion of the Cabinet meeting of July 14, 2019.


Ambassador Dr. Itzhak Oren teaches international relations at Haifa University, Israel. He previously served as the head of the coordination department in the Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and as its ambassador to Nigeria and the Republic of Benin. Prior to these positions, he was a diplomatic advisor to Prime Ministers Itzhak Shamir and Itzhak Rabin, and a member of the Israeli delegations to the multilateral talks on environment and ecology in 1992-93.

(Photo: courtesy of the author)

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